La Salud del Planeta y la Seguridad Alimentaria

La Salud del Planeta y
la Seguridad Alimentaria

 

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Naciones Unidas, (Ecoestrategia – Sxxi). Hoy en día, más personas que nunca dependen de la pesca y la acuicultura para obtener alimentos e ingresos, pero las prácticas nocivas y la mala gestión amenazan la sostenibilidad del sector, advirtió el nuevo informe de la Organización de Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la
Agricultura (FAO), titulado “El estado mundial de la pesca y la acuicultura”.
 
Según la última edición de este estudio, la producción pesquera y acuícola a nivel mundial ascendió a un total de 158 millones de toneladas en 2012, alrededor de 10 millones de toneladas más que en 2010. Actualmente el pescado supone el 17 por ciento de la ingesta global de proteínas de la población.
 
El cultivo de peces encierra grandes posibilidades para responder a la creciente demanda de alimentos que se deriva del crecimiento demográfico, según el informe. Al mismo tiempo, los océanos del planeta –si se gestionan de forma sostenible- tienen un papel importante en la creación de puestos de trabajo y para alimentar a la población mundial, según el informe de la FAO.
 
“La salud de nuestro planeta, así como nuestra propia salud y el futuro de la seguridad alimentaria, todo ello depende de cómo tratemos el mundo azul”, aseguró el director general de la FAO, José Graziano da Silva.
 
“Tenemos que asegurarnos de que el bienestar del medio ambiente es compatible con el bienestar humano, a fin de que la prosperidad sostenible a largo plazo sea una realidad para todos. Por esta razón, la FAO se ha comprometido a promover el ‘crecimiento azul’, que se basa en la gestión sostenible y responsable de los recursos acuáticos”, enfatizó el Director general de la FAO.
 
Este renovado interés en el denominado “mundo azul” se produce cuando la proporción de la producción pesquera utilizada por los seres humanos para alimentarse ha aumentado desde alrededor del 70 por ciento en la década de 1980 a un nivel récord de más del 85 por ciento (136 millones de toneladas) en 2012. Al mismo tiempo, el consumo per cápita de pescado se ha disparado de los 10 kilogramos en la década de 1960 a más de 19 kilogramos en 2012.
 
El nuevo reporte de la FAO señala también que el pescado representa en la actualidad casi el 17 por ciento de la ingesta de proteínas de la población mundial, porcentaje que en algunos países costeros e insulares puede superar el 70 por ciento. Esta organización de la ONU estima que la pesca y la acuicultura sostienen los medios de subsistencia de entre el 10 al 12 por ciento de la población mundial.
 
Asimismo, desde 1990, el empleo en el sector ha crecido a un ritmo más rápido que la población mundial, y en 2012 dio empleo a unos 60 millones de personas dedicadas a la pesca de captura y a las actividades acuícolas. De ellas, un 84 por ciento trabajaban en Asia, seguida de África con alrededor del 10 por ciento.

 

Estabilidad de la pesca y auge de la acuicultura
 

Actualmente, menos del 30 por ciento de las poblaciones de peces en libertad controladas regularmente por la FAO están sobreexplotadas, lo que supone una inversión en la tendencia observada durante los últimos años y un signo positivo en la dirección correcta.
 
Poco más del 70 por ciento se están explotando por dentro de los niveles biológicamente sostenibles. De este porcentaje, las poblaciones plenamente explotadas -es decir, aquellas en o muy cerca de su máxima producción sostenible- representan más del 60 por ciento, mientras que las poblaciones infraexplotadas suponen cerca del 10por ciento.
 
La producción mundial de la acuicultura marcó un récord histórico de más de 90 millones de toneladas en 2012, incluyendo casi 24 millones de toneladas de plantas acuáticas. China representó más del 60 por ciento de la cuota total.
 
La expansión de la acuicultura contribuye a mejorar la dieta de muchas personas, especialmente en las zonas rurales pobres, donde la presencia de nutrientes esenciales en los alimentos es a menudo escasa. Sin embargo, el informe advierte que para seguir creciendo de manera sostenible, la acuicultura tiene que ser menos dependiente de los peces en libertad para los piensos e introducir una mayor diversidad en especies y prácticas en las explotaciones acuícolas.
 
Por ejemplo, las especies de pequeño tamaño pueden ser una excelente fuente de minerales esenciales cuando se consumen por entero. Sin embargo, las preferencias del consumidor y otros factores han visto un cambio hacia especies cultivadas de mayor tamaño, cuyas espinas y cabezas a menudo se descartan.
 
El papel de la pesca tendrá un lugar destacado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición, organizada conjuntamente por la FAO y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y que tendrá lugar del 19 al 21 de noviembre de 2014 en Roma.
 
Durante la Cumbre sobre la acción oceánica global para la seguridad alimentaria y el Crecimiento Azul, celebrada el mes pasado en La Haya (Países Bajos), los gobiernos y diversos participantes se comprometieron a desarrollar acciones enfocadas en combatir el cambio climático, la sobrepesca, la pérdida de hábitats y la contaminación, en un intento de restablecer unos océanos resilientes y productivos.
 
El papel de la pesca tendrá un lugar destacado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición, organizada conjuntamente por la FAO y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y que tendrá lugar del 19 al 21 de noviembre de 2014 en Roma.
 
Durante la Cumbre sobre la acción oceánica global para la seguridad alimentaria y el Crecimiento Azul, celebrada el mes pasado en La Haya (Países Bajos), los gobiernos y diversos participantes se comprometieron a desarrollar acciones enfocadas en combatir el cambio climático, la sobrepesca, la pérdida de hábitats y la contaminación, en un intento de restablecer unos océanos resilientes y productivos.

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