La biología del odio

La biología del odio

 

ecerroni-1

 

Nuestra condición humana nos hace susceptibles a vivir toda clase de sentimientos y emociones: el odio, es uno de ellos. A veces explícito, otras escondido, pero casi siempre al acecho en las relaciones entre las personas.
 

El odio es un sentimiento generalmente duradero e intenso, que se caracteriza por una profunda antipatía, rencor, disgusto, aversión, repulsión o enemistad hacia una persona, grupo, circunstancia u objeto, y que se evidencia en el deseo de evitar, limitar o destruir lo odiado. Sigmund Freud definió el odio como un estado del yo que desea destruir la fuente de su infelicidad.

 
¿Qué dicen los estudios?
 
Los neurocientíficos interesados en el tema, intentan develar las bases biológicas del odio, en perspectiva de comprender qué ocurre en el cerebro de las personas que lo albergan; los hallazgos son sorprendentes. En ese estado emocional, se activan numerosas áreas del cerebro, que igualmente se activan cuando se experimenta el enamoramiento. Esto significa que biológicamente, amor y odio, comparten semejanzas que explican por qué se puede pasar de uno a otro fácilmente.

 
Para algunos psicólogos de la salud, el odio podría ser entendido como una “tabla de salvación” ante un hecho afectivo de difícil manejo, como puede ser la traición al amor, a la amistad o a la admiración. “Estos sentimientos necesitan ser sustituidos por otros igualmente potentes para que el ser humano no se derrumbe. Así el odio se convierte para algunos en una forma de sobrevivir”, afirman.

 
El amor es ciego y el odio ve demasiado
 
Amor y odio comprometen áreas del cerebro que dan a estos sentimientos un carácter irracional y hasta agresivo; sin embargo, en algún momento desvían sus rutas. En tanto el amor bloquea áreas del cerebro encargadas del pensamiento racional, que impiden ver al sujeto amado, tal cual es; el odio activa zonas localizadas en el lóbulo frontal, que es el responsable de procesos racionales. Por tanto, mientras la descarga hormonal recibida, obnubila al enamorado ante el sujeto de amor; quien odia, despojado de amor, orienta su comportamiento de manera intencional a dañar, a agredir o destruir abiertamente o de manera encubierta al sujeto u objeto odiado.
 
Así lo expresan los especialistas: “Quien odia es altamente eficaz a la hora de calcular acciones destinadas a dañar a la persona odiada; planificar conductas de agresión; evaluar, predecir, anticipar las reacciones de los demás o encubrirse a sí mismo”. La investigación también evidenció que si el odio aumenta, también se incrementa la actividad en las áreas cerebrales implicadas.

 
Dos serían las zonas del cerebro en donde se “fragua” esta trama: el putamen, ubicado en el centro del cerebro, encargado de planear la respuesta agresiva o asumir una actitud de defensa, y la ínsula, ubicada en la superficie lateral de este órgano, que acelera las expresiones de disgusto y los estímulos desagradables.

 
Consecuencias
 
La ciencia da cuenta de las implicaciones emocionales y físicas de esta emoción, y relaciona el odio con un proceso de envenenamiento interior, que acidifica el organismo, con la consecuente afectación de la estructura inmunológica. Esto contribuye al desarrollo de enfermedades como el cáncer, estados depresivos, estrés, ansiedad; además de someter al ser humano al riesgo de vivir experiencias desagradables relacionadas con la justicia y la ley. Por tal razón, el odio contenido, no elaborado, o expresado en actos violentos, no reporta ganancia, aunque sea normal experimentarlo en ciertos momentos.

 
En las relaciones interpersonales y en todos los contextos, el odio se convierte en una barrera poderosa y un limitante de procesos comunicativos, que a la vez, conllevan a la incomprensión, al desacuerdo, al desprecio, al irrespeto, a la desarmonía y a toda clase de violencias. Además, es común, que quien siente odio, no se dé cuenta que es él o ella quien más sufre, pues cree que al odiar, está castigando a quien “merece” este sentimiento, pero realmente, a quien se castiga, es a sí mismo(a), a su ser físico y emocional. Paradójicamente, algunas veces el “ser odiado”, ni siquiera se afecta por este hecho, no se interesa, o no se entera de que ha despertado este sentimiento.

 
Evite odiar

 
1-Algunos hechos dolorosos que le hicieron sentir odio, seguramente ya pasaron. Déjelos en el pasado y no continúe encadenado(a) al sufrimiento por aquello que ya no tiene remedio.
 

2-Perdonar no es fácil, sin embargo, haga el esfuerzo de perdonar a quien despertó su odio. Los seres humanos somos imperfectos y como tal actuamos.
 

3-Sea más tolerante y comprensivo con quienes le rodean. Su cuerpo y su mente se lo agradecerán.
 

4-Considere sus valores y reafírmese en ellos. Fortalezca su autoestima: quiérase, cuídese, dedíquese tiempo y atención. Una personalidad fuerte puede responder mejor ante las contingencias de la vida.

 
5-Actúe con respeto, generosidad, solidaridad y amor ante sus congéneres, esto beneficia sus relaciones interpersonales y evita odios.

 
6-Aunque el odio tiene una base biológica, usted desde la racionalidad, apoyado(a) en su sistema valorativo, y en algunos casos, con ayuda profesional puede darle el manejo adecuado para su beneficio y de los demás.

 
7-Recuerde, el odio se transmite fácilmente y es difícil de controlar. Evite llegar a una situación, de no retorno, pues algunos daños son irreparables.
 

8-El odio hace a las personas vulnerables y manipulables, situación que puede ser utilizada en contra suya y en beneficio de otros. En ese sentido, es fundamental que construya criterio para que usted no sea engañado(a) o involucrado en situaciones de riesgo.

 
9-Si usted ha fallado y generado odio en alguien, pida perdón de corazón y en lo posible repare el daño. Tenga en cuenta respetar y tratar con la mayor ética los sentimientos de las personas.

 
10- Si el odio trastorna su vida y es un sentimiento inmanejable, busque ayuda profesional. Prevenga hechos que pueda lamentar.

 
11-La cárcel, los hospitales y los cementerios están llenos de personas que han actuado con odio. Evite

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