El IDIGER y su trabajo frente a las problemáticas climáticas en Bogotá

El IDIGER y su trabajo frente a las problemáticas climáticas en Bogotá

En entrevista con Sxxi.net, Javier Pava, director del Instituto Distrital de Gestión de Riesgos y Cambio Climático (IDIGER), explicó como viene trabajando esa entidad con el fin de controlar y aprovechar las aguas lluvia, así como en la mitigación del cambio climático.

Javier Pava, director Instituto Distrital de Gestión de Riesgos y Cambio Climático (IDIGER)
Javier Pava, director Instituto Distrital de Gestión de Riesgos y Cambio Climático (IDIGER)

Sxxi.net: ¿Con la situación que tenemos de invierno, cuales son las condiciones que la ciudad tiene referente a toda el agua lluvia y a los caudales que hay en este momento?

Javier Pava: Hoy lo que hemos encontrado con estudios que han hecho varios investigadores es que eso va a ser lo normal en el tema del cambio climático, lo que hemos visto en la ciudad en las últimas semanas se convertirá en los más frecuente, el cambio climático habla de que se va a disminuir la cantidad de lluvia promedio al año y eso será así, pero lo que va a llevar es que se reduce pero al mismo tiempo la lluvia va a ser concentrada en áreas pico en la ciudad.

Esto obliga a que nos planteemos si el actual sistema de drenaje va a ser suficiente y por razones técnicas lo es, por ello habrían dos caminos por optar, el primero es construir canales o tuberías más grandes para evacuar las aguas sin embargo esto no sería viable ya que solo ocurriría dos veces al año en lo que viene en cuanto al tema del cambio climático.

¿Frente a esta situación que se busca y que alternativas se pueden plantear?

Lo que buscamos es que no siempre estemos preocupados por evacuar las aguas lluvia, sino que podamos amortiguarla, retenerla e irla descargando gradualmente sin necesidad de construir unos tubos o estructuras más grandes.

En el mundo existen diferentes sistemas de drenaje, superficiales, profundos o subterráneos, esto en Bogotá vendría siendo lo típico que hemos enterrado incluso todas nuestras quebradas, hoy en casi todas las ciudades en Europa y Estados Unidos lo que se plantea son sistemas urbanos de drenaje sostenible donde el tema de las aguas lluvia se convierte en un aprovechamiento de estas de tal manera que lo que se hace es reducir la cantidad de agua que llega al espacio público, y estas son estrategias que deben llevar a que en el predio privado se aproveche lo que llamamos la cosecha de aguas lluvias y de esta manera retemos el agua y no toda sale a la calle, eso nos reduce las presiones en el sistema, las posibilidades de inundación y además se está creando un beneficio que es un uso que puede darse en las viviendas para muchas cosas.

¿Cómo y en qué sectores se pueden llevar a cabo estos proyectos?

Eso se hace a nivel privado pero también se va a hacer a nivel público, si logramos tener sitios donde almacenemos agua pues esta la podremos utilizar para las zonas verdes, para construir fuentes de agua, hay hoy entidades como los centros comerciales donde se usan las aguas lluvia para las fuentes dentro de estos.

Sin embargo hay un tema en el área de la sostenibilidad que es muy importante, cuando tenemos mucha agua tenemos problemas de inundación pero cuando tenemos déficit de agua entonces las quebradas comienzan a tener malos olores y contaminación de roedores. Entonces qué es lo que debe plantearse este sistema, un sitio donde se almacene el agua en tiempos de exceso y luego se va descargando gradualmente para que siempre haya en las quebradas, en los canales y en los humedales lo que llaman un caudal ecológico que tengan siempre agua, de esta manera reducimos los efectos que puedan tenerse en ese momento cuando se tengan tiempos de sequía en época de verano, igualmente pueden darse en otros usos como en el tema de los incendios o incluso el polvo que se genera en las calles por la tierra en las calles entonces con estas aguas lluvias también se pueden regar las calles.

Esta acción que estamos planteando y que quedó en el decreto 528 del 24 de noviembre de 2014, es una de las estrategias de mayor avanzada en el tema de adaptación del cambio climático y un tema que por un lado reduce los riesgos y por otro lado brinda una serie de servicios ambientales fluviales muy importantes a la ciudad. Sistema Urbano de Drenaje Fluvial Sostenible y este se traduce en el uso y aprovechamiento del agua.

¿El reto hoy es entonces ampliar espacios como los humedales y construir reservorios de agua?

Para garantizar la evacuación rápida de las aguas lluvia en el modelo del drenaje, se debe entubar, canalizar, poner los canales rectos y eso me genera una mayor eficiencia para tratar y desplazar el agua, lo que busca este modelo es no permitir que toda el agua llegue al tiempo y para ello, habrá que recuperar las quebradas, recuperar naturalizándolas, garantizar que los humedales amplíen sus áreas y volumen de almacenamiento.

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