La Pedagogía del Error

La Pedagogía del Error

 

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Foto: Kakisky

 

1 patricia

Ana Patricia Cerón Guerrero
Psicóloga Fundación S.xxi

 

La pedagogía del error
 
Cuando se acierta en algún rol o función a desempeñar, es usual que no aparezca el reconocimiento de aquello que se ha hecho bien o conforme a lo que se espera. Lo contrario ocurre, cuando incurrimos en el desacierto, que comúnmente conlleva una magnificación de la situación, una sanción emocional, física, económica o social.
 
El error en nuestras vidas
 
El error, lleva implícito históricamente un halo de censura, que se traduce, en que lo hecho equivocadamente, merece un castigo de parte de quien juzga como malo o inadecuado el actuar de otro, que por distintas razones puede incurrir en él. Esta valoración se hace en el marco de la “pedagogía del éxito”, que se ha instituido socialmente, como la única posibilidad de conseguir el objetivo, cualquiera que este sea.
 
¿Cuándo nace el error?
 
Como especie, iniciamos el transcurrir por la vida, acogiendo estrategias de ensayo y error, que nos ubican y enseñan a entender el mundo, y nos instalan en el deber ser construido, para que todo funcione. En ese aprendizaje inicial, el error ocupa un lugar de privilegio, pues si el niño no se atreve a ensayar, jamás aprenderá la dinámica de la vida en sociedad, ni desarrollará las cualidades que nos diferencian. De ahí que, niños poco estimulados a ensayar y errar, tienen dificultades en el proceso de desarrollo.
 
Cuando el niño crece, los agentes socializadores presentes en su entorno, estimulan la idea de que el error conlleva castigo, sanción, estigmatización o censura, visión que favorece la comprensión del error, como algo indeseable. Como consecuencia predecible, aparece en la conciencia infantil, el miedo a fallar y la pérdida de la noción de la aventura personal, de aprender por distintos caminos, pues ya la cultura ha instruido a padres y profesores, para que desde esa visión, enseñen el camino que aparece como panacea, en la búsqueda de la “verdad”.
 
Si el niño se propone nuevos tipos de exploración, su autoestima será lesionada. Así aprendemos el miedo al error, porque no deseamos fracasar o hacer el ridículo, o ser señalados o apartados, porque seguramente alguien, que tiene el saber que no tenemos, nos tratará de manera perversa, haciéndonos sentir el poder, la inequidad, el apabullamiento y el autoritarismo sobre el que se fundamenta el sistema. Así nos han silenciado.
 
¿Es tan malo el error?
 
Desde los años 80, los modelos pedagógicos plantean, que en la relación enseñanza aprendizaje, se debe dar oportunidad de que se presente el error, y este, ha de tomarse como algo natural; como una oportunidad para el aprendizaje. Esto es válido, para todo tipo de aprendizaje; no exclusivamente para el que se imparte en instituciones educativas, y… por qué no, para todas las personas que desean aprender, independientemente de su edad.
 
Visto desde esta perspectiva, el error no es malo, es otro camino para aprender. Lo malo, es la manera como se ha entendido y abordado: imponiendo castigos, notas descalificadoras, sanciones sociales, burlas, matoneo, estigmatización, segregación.
 
Al respecto, el maestro Héctor Jiménez, plantea: “¿Qué tal si vamos a consulta médica, porque estamos enfermos, y el médico nos descalifica y nos regaña, en lugar de ofrecer alternativas para sanar el mal que nos aqueja?. Lo mismo se puede decir de quien enseña. No hay razón para agredir a un ser humano que comete un error o errores, en el proceso de aprendizaje”. Y agrega: “Si un estudiante no comete errores…Qué se le puede enseñar? ¿No es acaso una gran pregunta?
 
¿Qué más proponen estos modelos?
 
Señalan que se debe guiar a quien comete un error, en la búsqueda de formas de corregirlo, aumentando su capacidad de investigación, análisis, observación, autocrítica y aprendizaje. Instan a quien enseña, a convertirse en el mayor facilitador en la consecución del objetivo, pues desde su experiencia, puede evidenciar más claramente los obstáculos que impiden adquirir el aprendizaje. Así mismo invitan a quien imparte conocimiento, a investigar las causas que generan el error, para dar paso a retroalimentaciones rápidas y eficientes, pues la calidad de las retroalimentaciones, está estrechamente relacionada con la calidad del aprendizaje.
 
¿De dónde parte la pedagogía del error?
 
Parte de valorar lo que ya se ha aprendido y analiza a través del error, aquello que se debe mejorar. Considera el error, como parte inseparable de la condición humana, dado que todos somos susceptibles a equivocarnos al aprender, y lo entiende como un “elemento de carácter constructivo e innovador”.
 
Así mismo, invita a que no se castigue a quien lo comete, sino por el contrario, se le proporcione un proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje estimulante, favoreciendo la toma de conciencia frente al error, sin infundir miedo ni señalamientos. Esta pedagogía se centra en develar y comprender, qué tipo de ayuda necesita quien aprende, preocupándose esencialmente por el proceso; no para que haya mejoramiento de un resultado específico, sino con la intención de implementar estrategias y desarrollar aptitudes permanentes, que aporten a las personas confianza en sí mismas y seguridad.
 
Actualmente, científicos sociales interesados en el tema, desarrollan trabajos grupales aplicando esta pedagogía, que permite a quienes aprenden, identificar y corregir errores de manera colectiva. Esta apuesta, incide positivamente, en la construcción de una mentalidad solidaria, alejada de la comparación y la competencia entre las personas para lograr soluciones; favorece la cohesión y fortalecimiento del grupo, desde la conciencia de que todos podemos equivocarnos, pero siempre en el grupo está la solución.
 
Profesores y profesoras de preescolar, primaria, bachillerato, universidad. Profesores de las ciencias, de las artes, del deporte, de la danza, de la música: Cambiemos la mentalidad…¡ Seamos Maestros!

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