¿Cómo se aprende un idioma?

¿Cómo se aprende un idioma?



Por: Héctor Jiménez

Para aprender un idioma extranjero se requiere una de las opciones siguientes: vivir en un medio donde se hable el idioma y podremos aprenderlo por necesidad de comunicarnos, y la segunda consiste en tener un profesor guía de aprendizaje y no un expositor de reglas gramaticales.

Para ser un buen guía de aprendizaje, necesitamos saber prioritariamente cómo se prende un idioma, en lugar de seguir un programa pre-elaborado, como aparece en los textos de inglés.

Si sabemos cómo se aprende un idioma, podremos elaborar el programa que deseamos, de acuerdo con las necesidades del aprendiz. Dentro de esas necesidades consideramos lo que deseamos que el alumno realice al término del curso.

Un idioma, es un medio de comunicación humana, en cuyo aprendizaje se desarrollan habilidades básicas como la comprensión auditiva del idioma hablado; la producción de ideas orales que permitan comunicar que sé y lo que se siente. La comprensión del lenguaje escrito, que es la grafía, nos permite entender la comunicación escrita, y al mismo tiempo, saber graficar esas ideas a través del lenguaje escrito. He allí, las cuatro habilidades básicas: comprensión oral, habla, lectura y escritura. Visto esto, nos quedaría un interrogante: ¿Se pueden desarrollar estas habilidades solo con teoría gramatical? Sería como pilotear un jet con una sola explicación de técnicas de vuelo.

Existe un tercer conocimiento requerido para ser un buen profesor: convertirse en un guía interesado en saber crear situaciones de aprendizaje en el aula de clase, y en elaborar actividades que permitan el desarrollo de cada habilidad independientemente. Como vemos, no se puede ser bilingüe sabiendo cómo funciona un idioma y no desarrollando habilidades para su uso. El profesor guía debe poseer gran paciencia, cualidad social que se adquiere, cuando sabemos que nadie aprende a un ritmo igual.


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