Informe Mundial sobre Desarrollo Humano

Informe Mundial sobre Desarrollo Humano

 

2.200 millones de personas son pobres o se encuentran al borde
de la pobreza

 

nino-triste-00

 

Naciones Unidas, (Ecoestratregia – Sxxi.net).- Las vulnerabilidades persistentes constituyen una amenaza para el desarrollo humano y, a menos que se aborden de manera sistemática a través de políticas específicas y normas sociales distintas, el desarrollo humano no será ni equitativo ni sostenible

 
Este es el tema central del Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2014, presentado por el primer ministro de Japón, Shinzo Abe; la administradora el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), Helen Clark; y el director del Gabinete de la Oficina del Informe de Desarrollo Humano, Khalid Malik.

Bajo el título “Sostener el Progreso Humano: Reducir vulnerabilidades y construir resiliencia”, el Informe proporciona una nueva perspectiva sobre la vulnerabilidad y propone nuevas formas de reforzar la resiliencia.
 

Según las mediciones de pobreza basadas en ingresos, 1.200 millones de personas viven con 1,25 dólares al día o menos. Sin embargo, las últimas estimaciones del Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional del PNUD revelan que casi 1.500 millones de personas, de 91 países en desarrollo, viven en situación de pobrezamultidimensional, con carencias concurrentes en salud, educación y nivel de vida. Y aunque en términos generales la pobreza está disminuyendo, casi 800 millones de personas se enfrentan al riesgo de volver a caer en ella por causa de alguna crisis o adversidad.

 
Reducir aquello que impide el progreso

 
La publicación destaca que, según el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH), en todas las regiones el crecimiento en los niveles de desarrollo humano se está produciendo a un ritmo más lento. Señala también que amenazas tales como las crisis financieras, las fluctuaciones en el precio de los alimentos, los desastres naturales y los conflictos violentos obstaculizan notablemente el progreso humano.

 
El informe afirma que “la reducción de la pobreza y la vulnerabilidad (que pone a las personas en riesgo de caer de nuevo en la pobreza) debe ser un objetivo central de la agenda para el desarrollo post-2015”- e indica -, “que erradicar la pobreza extrema no solo consiste en reducir sus niveles a cero, sino en asegurarse también de mantener estos logros”.

 
Este documento explora las vulnerabilidades estructurales, es decir, aquellas que han persistido y se han combinado a lo largo del tiempo, como resultado de la discriminación y las deficiencias institucionales y que afectan a grupos de población como las personas en situación de pobreza, las mujeres, los migrantes, las personas con discapacidad, los pueblos indígenas y las personas de mayor edad. Señala que el 80 por ciento de las personas de edad avanzada del mundo carecen de protección social y un número elevado de ellas son también pobres o discapacitadas.
 

La investigación también introduce la idea de las vulnerabilidades que se dan a lo largo del ciclo de vida de las personas, prestando atención a aquellos periodos de cambio especialmente sensibles de la vida, en los que las crisis o acontecimientos adversos pueden tener mayores repercusiones. Entre ellos, destacan los primeros 1.000 días de vida y las transiciones del ámbito educativo al laboral, y de éste a la jubilación.“Las capacidades en cualquier etapa de la vida se ven afectadas por las inversiones realizadas en etapas anteriores, y se deben fomentar y mantener; de lo contrario, pueden quedarse estancadas o incluso disminuir, y la exposición a eventos adversos puntuales tiene con frecuencia consecuencias a largo plazo”.
 

Asumir la prestación universal de servicios sociales básicos

 
El informe promueve la prestaciónuniversal de servicios sociales básicos para mejorar la resiliencia de las personas y refuta la idea de que solo los países más prósperos pueden hacerlo. En este sentido, la publicación presenta un análisis comparativo de países con distintos sistemas de gobernanza que han empezado a implementar, o han implementado ya plenamente este tipo de políticas, destacando el nivel de ingresos con que contaban en el momento de adoptar dichas políticas.

 
Entre estos países no solo se incluyen a Dinamarca, Noruega y Suecia, sino también economías en rápido crecimiento como la República de Corea y países en desarrollo, como Costa Rica. “Estos países empezaron poniendo en marcha medidas de seguridad social cuando su producto interno bruto (PIB) per capita era más bajo que el que tienen hoy la India y Pakistán”, indica el Informe.

 
El Informe insta a los gobiernos a volver a comprometerse con el objetivo del pleno empleo insta a que las iniciativas se concentren en las transformaciones estructurales de forma tal que el empleo formal moderno absorba de manera gradual la mayor parte de la fuerza laboral”, incluyendo una transición de la agricultura a la industria y los servicios, al mismo tiempo que respalda las inversiones en infraestructura y educación. La protección social es posible La mayor parte de la población mundial carece de prestaciones sociales, como acceso a una pensión o a un seguro de desempleo. El Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2014 defiende que todos los países, en cualquier fase de desarrollo, pueden llevar a cabo esas medidas.“Proveer prestaciones sociales básicas a las personas pobres del mundo supondría un coste algo menor del 2 por ciento del PIB mundial”, afirma la publicación.
 
El Informe cita también estimaciones relativas al coste que supondría establecer un soporte mínimo de protección social, que incluya pensiones universales básicas de jubilación y discapacidad, servicios básicos para el cuidado de los hijos, acceso universal a la atención médica básica, asistencia social y un plan de empleo de 100 días: para 12 países africanos y asiáticos con bajos ingresos con valores.
 

“Un conjunto de medidas básicas de protección social será asequible para los países con bajos ingresos mediante la redistribución de fondos y el aumento de sus recursos nacionales, todo ello complementado por la ayuda de la comunidad internacional de donantes”, indica el Informe. El Informe también hace un llamado a una acción colectiva más sólida, así como a una mejor coordinación global y un mayor compromiso para apoyar la resiliencia como respuesta a las vulnerabilidades, que son cada vez más globales tanto en su origen como en su impacto.

 
Las amenazas, que van desde las crisis financieras y el cambio climático hasta los conflictos, son de carácter transnacional, pero los efectos se padecen a nivel local y nacional y, a menudo, se superponen.
 

Con el objetivo de dar mayor apoyo a las estrategias nacionales y de ampliar el margen de acción de la política pública para que los países adapten el principio de universalidad a sus condiciones específicas, el Informe 2014 urge a que la agenda para el desarrollo post-2015 incluya un “consenso internacional sobre la protección social universal”.

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